PostgreSQL installations

PostgreSQL installationsPostgreSQL installations

[root@test02 init.d]# ll /etc/init.d/postgresql-9.5

-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 10072 May 15 06:34 /etc/init.d/postgresql-9.5

1. 检查PostgreSQL 是否已经安装

# rpm -qa|grep postgres

若已经安装,则使用rpm -e 命令卸载

[root@test02 bin]# rpm -qa|grep postgres

postgresql-8.4.18-1.el6_4.x86_64

postgresql-devel-8.4.18-1.el6_4.x86_64

postgresql-libs-8.4.18-1.el6_4.x86_64

[root@test02 bin]# rpm -e postgresql-devel-8.4.18-1.el6_4.x86_64

[root@test02 bin]# rpm -e postgresql-8.4.18-1.el6_4.x86_64

[root@test02 bin]# rpm -e postgresql-libs-8.4.18-1.el6_4.x86_64

[root@test02 soft_bak]# wget http://yum.postgresql.org/9.5/redhat/rhel-6.5-x86_64/postgresql95-server-9.5.3-1PGDG.rhel6.x86_64.rpm

[root@test02 soft_bak]# wget http://yum.postgresql.org/9.5/redhat/rhel-6.5-x86_64/postgresql95-contrib-9.5.3-1PGDG.rhel6.x86_64.rpm

[root@test02 soft_bak]# wget http://yum.postgresql.org/9.5/redhat/rhel-6.5-x86_64/postgresql95-libs-9.5.3-1PGDG.rhel6.x86_64.rpm

[root@test02 soft_bak]# wget http://yum.postgresql.org/9.5/redhat/rhel-6.5-x86_64/postgresql95-9.5.3-1PGDG.rhel6.x86_64.rpm

3. 安装PostgreSQL,注意安装顺序

[root@test02 soft_bak]# rpm -ivh postgresql95-libs-9.5.3-1PGDG.rhel6.x86_64.rpm

warning: postgresql95-libs-9.5.3-1PGDG.rhel6.x86_64.rpm: Header V4 DSA/SHA1 Signature, key ID 442df0f8: NOKEY

Preparing...                ########################################### [100%]

1:postgresql95-libs      ########################################### [100%]

[root@test02 soft_bak]# rpm -ivh postgresql95-9.5.3-1PGDG.rhel6.x86_64.rpm

warning: postgresql95-9.5.3-1PGDG.rhel6.x86_64.rpm: Header V4 DSA/SHA1 Signature, key ID 442df0f8: NOKEY

Preparing...                ########################################### [100%]

1:postgresql95           ########################################### [100%]

[root@test02 soft_bak]# rpm -ivh postgresql95-server-9.5.3-1PGDG.rhel6.x86_64.rpm

warning: postgresql95-server-9.5.3-1PGDG.rhel6.x86_64.rpm: Header V4 DSA/SHA1 Signature, key ID 442df0f8: NOKEY

Preparing...                ########################################### [100%]

1:postgresql95-server    ########################################### [100%]

[root@test02 soft_bak]# rpm -ivh postgresql95-contrib-9.5.3-1PGDG.rhel6.x86_64.rpm

warning: postgresql95-contrib-9.5.3-1PGDG.rhel6.x86_64.rpm: Header V4 DSA/SHA1 Signature, key ID 442df0f8: NOKEY

Preparing...                ########################################### [100%]

1:postgresql95-contrib   ########################################### [100%]

4 初始化PostgreSQL 数据库

初始化数据库

# service postgresql-9.5 initdb

[root@test02 pgsql]# service postgresql-9.5 initdb

Initializing database:                                     [  OK  ]

5. 启动服务

# service postgresql-9.5 start

[root@test02 pgsql]# service postgresql-9.5 start

Starting postgresql-9.5 service:                           [  OK  ]

6. 把PostgreSQL 服务加入到启动列表

# chkconfig postgresql-9.2 on

# chkconfig --list|grep postgres

chkconfig –list|grep postgres

7. 修改PostgreSQL 数据库用户postgres的密码

PostgreSQL 数据库默认会创建一个postgres的数据库用户作为数据库的管理员,默认密码为空,我们需要修改为指定的密码,这里设定为’postgres’。


[root@test02 bin]# su - postgres

-bash-4.1$ pwd

/var/lib/pgsql

-bash-4.1$ psql

psql (8.4.18, server 9.5.3)

WARNING: psql version 8.4, server version 9.5.

Some psql features might not work.

Type "help" for help.

postgres=#

postgres=# ALTER USER postgres WITH PASSWORD 'postgres';

ALTER ROLE

postgres=# SELECT * from pg_shadow ;

usename  | usesysid | usecreatedb | usesuper | userepl | usebypassrls |               passwd                | valuntil | us

econfig

----------+----------+-------------+----------+---------+--------------+-------------------------------------+----------+---

--------

postgres |       10 | t           | t        | t       | t            | md53175bce1d3201d16594cebf9d7eb3f9d |          |

(1 row)

8. 测试数据库

postgres=# CREATE DATABASE t_pgdb;

CREATE DATABASE

postgres=# \l+

List of databases

Name    |  Owner   | Encoding |  Collation  |    Ctype    |   Access privileges   |  Size   | Tablespace |

Description

-----------+----------+----------+-------------+-------------+-----------------------+---------+------------+---------------

-----------------------------

postgres  | postgres | UTF8     | en_US.UTF-8 | en_US.UTF-8 |                       | 7248 kB | pg_default | default admini

strative connection database

t_pgdb    | postgres | UTF8     | en_US.UTF-8 | en_US.UTF-8 |                       | 7129 kB | pg_default |

template0 | postgres | UTF8     | en_US.UTF-8 | en_US.UTF-8 | =c/postgres           | 7129 kB | pg_default | unmodifiable e

mpty database

: postgres=CTc/postgres

template1 | postgres | UTF8     | en_US.UTF-8 | en_US.UTF-8 | =c/postgres           | 7129 kB | pg_default | default templa

te for new databases

: postgres=CTc/postgres

(4 rows)

切换到t_pgdb 数据库

postgres=# \c t_pgdb

psql (8.4.18, server 9.5.3)

WARNING: psql version 8.4, server version 9.5.

Some psql features might not work.

You are now connected to database "t_pgdb".

t_pgdb=# CREATE TABLE t_table(id int primary key,name text);

CREATE TABLE

t_pgdb=# INSERT INTO t_table VALUES (1,'Andrew');

INSERT 0 1

t_pgdb=# INSERT INTO t_table VALUES (2,'Tonny');

INSERT 0 1

t_pgdb=# SELECT * from t_table ;

id |  name

----+--------

1 | Andrew

2 | Tonny

(2 rows)

9. 修改linux 系统用户postgres 的密码

PostgreSQL 数据库默认会创建一个linux 系统用户postgres,通过passwd 命令设置系统用户的密码为postgres

-bash-4.1$ exit

logout

[root@test02 bin]# passwd postgres

Changing password for user postgres.

New password:

BAD PASSWORD: it is based on a dictionary word

Retype new password:

passwd: all authentication tokens updated successfully.

修改postgresql.conf文件

如果想让PostgreSQL 监听整个网络的话,将listen_addresses 前的#去掉,并将 listen_addresses = 'localhost' 改成 listen_addresses = '*',因为localhost只允许本机连接,#开头的参数为默认配置

[root@test02 bin]# vim /var/lib/pgsql/9.5/data/postgresql.conf

listen_addresses = '*'

修改客户端认证配置文件pg_hba.conf

将需要远程访问数据库的IP地址或地址段加入该文件

host    all             all             0.0.0.0/0               md5

[root@test02 bin]# su - postgres

-bash-4.1$ service postgresql-9.5 restart

Stopping postgresql-9.5 service:                           [FAILED]

touch: cannot touch `/var/lock/subsys/postgresql-9.5': Permission denied

/etc/init.d/postgresql-9.5: line 170: /var/run/postgresql-9.5.pid: Permission denied

service postgresql-9.5 restart ( root用户执行)

[root@test02 9.5]# /etc/init.d/postgresql-9.5 restart

Stopping postgresql-9.5 service:                           [  OK  ]

Starting postgresql-9.5 service:                           [  OK  ]

/usr/pgsql-9.5/bin/pg_ctl -D /var/lib/pgsql/9.5/data/ stop

waiting for server to shut down.... done

server stopped

-bash-4.1$ /usr/pgsql-9.5/bin/pg_ctl -D /var/lib/pgsql/9.5/data/ start

server starting

-bash-4.1$ < 2016-06-02 23:49:28.415 CST >LOG:  redirecting log output to logging collector process

< 2016-06-02 23:49:28.415 CST >HINT:  Future log output will appear in directory "pg_log".

-bash-4.1$ ps hf -u postgres -o cmd

-bash

\_ ps hf -u postgres -o cmd

/usr/pgsql-9.5/bin/postgres -D /var/lib/pgsql/9.5/data

\_ postgres: logger process

\_ postgres: checkpointer process

\_ postgres: writer process

\_ postgres: wal writer process

\_ postgres: autovacuum launcher process

\_ postgres: stats collector process

-bash-4.1$ /usr/pgsql-9.5/bin/pg_ctl -D /var/lib/pgsql/9.5/data/ stop

waiting for server to shut down.... done

server stopped

[root@test02 bin]# rpm -qa|grep postgres

postgresql95-9.5.3-1PGDG.rhel6.x86_64

postgresql-8.4.18-1.el6_4.x86_64

postgresql-devel-8.4.18-1.el6_4.x86_64

postgresql95-server-9.5.3-1PGDG.rhel6.x86_64

postgresql95-contrib-9.5.3-1PGDG.rhel6.x86_64

postgresql-libs-8.4.18-1.el6_4.x86_64

postgresql95-libs-9.5.3-1PGDG.rhel6.x86_64

卸载(注意顺序)

[root@test02 bin]# rpm -e postgresql95-server-9.5.3-1PGDG.rhel6.x86_64

[root@test02 bin]# rpm -e postgresql95-contrib-9.5.3-1PGDG.rhel6.x86_64

[root@test02 bin]# rpm -e postgresql95-9.5.3-1PGDG.rhel6.x86_64

[root@test02 bin]# rpm -e postgresql95-libs-9.5.3-1PGDG.rhel6.x86_64

YUM

如果是默认yum 安装的话,会安装较低版本的PostgreSQL 8.4,这不符合我们的要求

我们使用PostgreSQL Yum Repository 来安装最新版本的PostgreSQL

To use the yum repository, you must first install the repository RPM. To do this, download the correct RPM from the repository RPM listing, and install it with commands like:

[root@test02 bin]# rpm -i https://download.postgresql.org/pub/repos/yum/9.5/redhat/rhel-6-x86_64/pgdg-redhat95-9.5-2.noarch.rpm

Once this is done, you can proceed to install and update packages the same way as the ones included in the distribution.

[root@test02 bin]# yum install postgresql95-server postgresql95-contrib

Loaded plugins: product-id, security, subscription-manager

This system is not registered to Red Hat Subscription Management. You can use subscription-manager to register.

pgdg95                                                                                               | 3.7 kB     00:00

pgdg95/primary_db                                                                                    | 138 kB     00:01

Setting up Install Process

Resolving Dependencies

--> Running transaction check

---> Package postgresql95-contrib.x86_64 0:9.5.3-2PGDG.rhel6 will be installed

--> Processing Dependency: postgresql95-libs(x86-64) = 9.5.3-2PGDG.rhel6 for package: postgresql95-contrib-9.5.3-2PGDG.rhel6.x86_64

--> Processing Dependency: postgresql95(x86-64) = 9.5.3-2PGDG.rhel6 for package: postgresql95-contrib-9.5.3-2PGDG.rhel6.x86_64

--> Processing Dependency: libpq.so.5()(64bit) for package: postgresql95-contrib-9.5.3-2PGDG.rhel6.x86_64

---> Package postgresql95-server.x86_64 0:9.5.3-2PGDG.rhel6 will be installed

--> Running transaction check

---> Package postgresql95.x86_64 0:9.5.3-2PGDG.rhel6 will be installed

---> Package postgresql95-libs.x86_64 0:9.5.3-2PGDG.rhel6 will be installed

--> Finished Dependency Resolution

Dependencies Resolved

======================================================================================================================================

Package                                Arch                     Version                               Repository                Size

======================================================================================================================================

Installing:

postgresql95-contrib                   x86_64                   9.5.3-2PGDG.rhel6                     pgdg95                   456 k

postgresql95-server                    x86_64                   9.5.3-2PGDG.rhel6                     pgdg95                   4.5 M

Installing for dependencies:

postgresql95                           x86_64                   9.5.3-2PGDG.rhel6                     pgdg95                   1.3 M

postgresql95-libs                      x86_64                   9.5.3-2PGDG.rhel6                     pgdg95                   205 k

Transaction Summary

======================================================================================================================================

Install       4 Package(s)

Total download size: 6.5 M

Installed size: 25 M

Is this ok [y/N]: y

Downloading Packages:

(1/4): postgresql95-9.5.3-2PGDG.rhel6.x86_64.rpm                                                               | 1.3 MB     00:27

(2/4): postgresql95-contrib-9.5.3-2PGDG.rhel6.x86_64.rpm                                                       | 456 kB     00:15

(3/4): postgresql95-libs-9.5.3-2PGDG.rhel6.x86_64.rpm                                                          | 205 kB     00:06

(4/4): postgresql95-server-9.5.3-2PGDG.rhel6.x86_64.rpm                                                        | 4.5 MB     01:32

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Total                                                                                                  45 kB/s | 6.5 MB     02:26

Running rpm_check_debug

Running Transaction Test

Transaction Test Succeeded

Running Transaction

Warning: RPMDB altered outside of yum.

Installing : postgresql95-libs-9.5.3-2PGDG.rhel6.x86_64                                                                         1/4

Installing : postgresql95-9.5.3-2PGDG.rhel6.x86_64                                                                              2/4

Installing : postgresql95-contrib-9.5.3-2PGDG.rhel6.x86_64                                                                      3/4

Installing : postgresql95-server-9.5.3-2PGDG.rhel6.x86_64                                                                       4/4

Verifying  : postgresql95-contrib-9.5.3-2PGDG.rhel6.x86_64                                                                      1/4

Verifying  : postgresql95-server-9.5.3-2PGDG.rhel6.x86_64                                                                       2/4

Verifying  : postgresql95-libs-9.5.3-2PGDG.rhel6.x86_64                                                                         3/4

Verifying  : postgresql95-9.5.3-2PGDG.rhel6.x86_64                                                                              4/4

Installed:

postgresql95-contrib.x86_64 0:9.5.3-2PGDG.rhel6                    postgresql95-server.x86_64 0:9.5.3-2PGDG.rhel6

Dependency Installed:

postgresql95.x86_64 0:9.5.3-2PGDG.rhel6                         postgresql95-libs.x86_64 0:9.5.3-2PGDG.rhel6

Complete!

查看安装

[root@test02 bin]# rpm -qa|grep postgres

postgresql95-9.5.3-2PGDG.rhel6.x86_64

postgresql95-server-9.5.3-2PGDG.rhel6.x86_64

postgresql95-libs-9.5.3-2PGDG.rhel6.x86_64

postgresql95-contrib-9.5.3-2PGDG.rhel6.x86_64

初始化并启动数据库(root用户)

[root@test02 9.5]# /etc/init.d/postgresql-9.5 initdb

Initializing database:                                     [  OK  ]

[root@test02 9.5]# /etc/init.d/postgresql-9.5 start

Starting postgresql-9.5 service:                           [  OK  ]

[root@test02 9.5]# ps hf -u postgres -o cmd

/usr/pgsql-9.5/bin/postmaster -D /var/lib/pgsql/9.5/data

\_ postgres: logger process

\_ postgres: checkpointer process

\_ postgres: writer process

\_ postgres: wal writer process

\_ postgres: autovacuum launcher process

\_ postgres: stats collector process

[root@test02 9.5]# su - postgres

-bash-4.1$ psql

psql (9.5.3)

Type "help" for help.

postgres=# \l

List of databases

Name    |  Owner   | Encoding |   Collate   |    Ctype    |   Access privileges

-----------+----------+----------+-------------+-------------+-----------------------

postgres  | postgres | UTF8     | en_US.UTF-8 | en_US.UTF-8 |

template0 | postgres | UTF8     | en_US.UTF-8 | en_US.UTF-8 | =c/postgres          +

|          |          |             |             | postgres=CTc/postgres

template1 | postgres | UTF8     | en_US.UTF-8 | en_US.UTF-8 | =c/postgres          +

|          |          |             |             | postgres=CTc/postgres

(3 rows)

源码安装

1.下载源代码

[root@test02 ~]# wget https://ftp.postgresql.org/pub/source/v9.5.3/postgresql-9.5.3.tar.gz

--2016-06-03 00:29:29--  https://ftp.postgresql.org/pub/source/v9.5.3/postgresql-9.5.3.tar.gz

Resolving ftp.postgresql.org... 174.143.35.246, 213.189.17.228, 217.196.149.55, ...

Connecting to ftp.postgresql.org|174.143.35.246|:443... connected.

HTTP request sent, awaiting response... 200 OK

Length: 24134415 (23M) [application/x-gzip]

Saving to: ?.ostgresql-9.5.3.tar.gz?

100%[============================================================================================>] 24,134,415  37.3K/s   in 9m 58s

2016-06-03 00:39:29 (39.4 KB/s) - ?.ostgresql-9.5.3.tar.gz?.saved [24134415/24134415]

2.解压PostgreSQL源码包 :tar zxvf postgresql-9.2.4.tar.gz

或 tar jxvf postgresql-9.5.3.tar.bz2

3,切换到刚刚解压的目录下:cd postgresql-9.5.3

4. ./configure

如果遇到错误,则需要如下安装依赖工具包(按需安装)

yum install gcc

yum install readline

yum install flex

yum install zlib

在执行./configure

gmake world

gmake install-world

安装完毕

然后启动数据库

到安装目录(默认为/usr/local/postgres)

在该目录下建立data目录 (存放数据库相关文件)

启动数据库需要非root用户

/usr/local/pgsql//bin

初始化数据库

./initdb  -D ../data start

启动数据库

./pg_clt -D ../data start

启动后连接数据库:

在/usrl/local/pgsql/bin目录下

执行 ./psql 连接到默认的postgres数据

然后可以创建数据库,创建表,等操作了。


PostgreSQL run文件安装

[root@test01 home]# cd /opt/soft/

[root@test01 soft]# ll

total 97804

-rw-r--r--. 1 root root 38101062 May 27 17:57 postgresql-9.5.3-1-linux-x64.run

-rw-r--r--. 1 root root 37116313 May 27 18:05 postgresql-9.6.0-beta1-linux-x64.run

-rw-r--r--. 1  500  500 24925549 May 25 01:29 postgresql-9.6beta1.tar.gz

[root@test01 soft]# chmod +x postgresql-9.5.3-1-linux-x64.run

[root@test01 soft]# ll

total 97804

-rwxr-xr-x. 1 root root 38101062 May 27 17:57 postgresql-9.5.3-1-linux-x64.run

-rw-r--r--. 1 root root 37116313 May 27 18:05 postgresql-9.6.0-beta1-linux-x64.run

-rw-r--r--. 1  500  500 24925549 May 25 01:29 postgresql-9.6beta1.tar.gz

[root@test01 soft]# ./postgresql-9.5.3-1-linux-x64.run

or

[root@test01 soft]# ./postgresql-9.5.3-1-linux-x64.run  --mode text

......

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